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It is traditionally believed the earliest writings had the advantage of being checked by people who already knew the text by heart, for they had learned it at the time of the revelation itself and had subsequently recited it constantly.

Since the official compilation was completed several decades after Muhammad's death, the Uthman text has been scrupulously preserved.

This palimpsest has two layers of text, both of which are Quranic and written in the Hijazi script.

While the upper text is almost identical with the modern Qurans in use (with the exception of spelling variants), the lower text contains significant diversions from the standard text.

What commends it (Quran) so powerfully to the historian is its authenticity, not as the Word of God, of course, as the Muslims believe but as the secular historian cannot and should not, but rather as a document attesting to what Muhammad said at that time and place, early seventh-century Mecca.

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Those Uthmanic clues are fragmentary, however, and large 'invented' portions might well have been added to our Quran or authentic material deleted.

Bucaille believed that this did not give rise to any problems of this Quran's authenticity.

Reliance upon oral traditions, at a time when they were transmitted by memory alone, and every day produced new divisions among the professors of Islam, opened up a wide field for fabrication and distortion.

Muslims believe that the wording of the Quranic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad in the years 610–632.

Maurice Bucaille, medical doctor, author and member of the French Society of Egyptology, states in The Bible, The Qur'an and Science that "The Quranic Revelation has a history which is fundamentally different from the other two.

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